Glossary
Unique Selling Proposition? Business model? Business concept?...

Whether you are a CEO, Business or Brand Development Manager or Entrepreneur, it's important that we understand each other.
Regardless of whether we are speaking or writing, it is important to chose the right words to get your point across, It may be imperceptible, but it does matter to us.

We've simplified everything-branding. Below, in our Glossary, you will find our explanation of branding and business terms that are free of jargon and full of ingenuity.



Business

A

ACCOUNTING PERIOD
The time for which profits are being calculated, normally months, quarters or years.

ACCOUNTS
Businesses are obligated to produce an annual set of accounts. If they are listed on the stock exchange, they must also show half-year profits (information regarding profits six months into the financial year).

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE
Amounts of money owed by your company to external suppliers.

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE
Money owed to your company by customers.

ACQUISITION
The purchase of one company or resources by another.

ACTUARY
An actuary is a person employed by pension providers and insurance companies. Their role is to calculate accident rates, life expectancy and the relevant payouts.

ADMINISTRATION
There are two meanings relating to this word in business.
(1) The organisation and running of a business.
(2) A business going into administration, meaning that a business has gone bankrupt and its creditors can get in touch to try and claim any money they are owed.

AFFILIATE MARKETING
A retailer or service provider advertising its goods or services via a third party in return for a commission on any sales.

ANNUAL EQUIVALENT RATE (AER)
A quote of what interest paid on savings and investments would be. It is calculated by adding each interest payment to the original deposit, then working out the next interest payment, compounding the interest.

ANNUAL PERCENTAGE RATE (APR)
This is the rate of interest you agree to pay on money borrowed. The higher the amount, the more you will pay.

ANNUITY
This is a type of insurance policy. Upon retirement a lump sum is paid into it and the insurance company then provide a regular income.

ARBITRAGE
The process by which a person or business takes advantage of the difference in price of a share or a currency.

ASSETS
Property that has value owned by a company.

AUDIT
An official inspection of a company's, or individual's, accounts.



B

B2B
Business to business.

B2C
Business to consumer.

BALANCE SHEET
A 'snapshot' of a company's assets, liabilities and capital at a particular point in time.

BASE RATE
Set each month by the Bank in EU (also England), this is the country's base rate of interest. This influences financial products and services when they set their own cost of borrowing.

BENCHMARKING
Checking your company's standards by comparing them with certain criteria, e.g. a competitor's activities.

BID-OFFER SPREAD
The buying (offer) and selling (bid) price of shares, bonds or currency. The 'spread' is the difference between those two prices.

BLACK SWAN
Financial events that are difficult to predict. It is called this because before people ventured to Australia, swans were assumed to only be white. No one had seen a black one until then.

BLUE CHIP
This term originates from poker as blue chips are traditionally the highest-valued. Therefore, a blue-chip company is one that is large and considered to be safe or prestigious.

BOND
An agreement made when money is borrowed from an investor at a set rate of interest. It is repaid over a set period of time. Bonds are rated from the safest (AAA) to the riskiest (D), also known as 'junk bonds'.

BOOTSTRAPPING
(1) Building a start-up company with very little money, often relying on personal savings and pushing for the lowest possible operating costs, while implementing cost-saving systems such as fast inventory turnaround.
(2) Making a forecast beyond a certain period by using the forecasted data for that period.

BREAK-EVEN POINT
The point in time when you will have paid back all your debts, or when revenues exactly match expenses.

BRIDGING LOAN
This loan is taken out by people who need access to finance while their property is being sold.

BUSINESS ANGEL
Also known as an angel investor. An individual who provides capital for a business start-up in return for a stake in the company.

BUSINESS CYCLE
The tendency for economies to experience peaks and troughs that follows a cyclical pattern – known colloquially as 'boom and bust'. Governments are tasked with smoothing the peaks and troughs and limiting the effect of these cycles on consumers and businesses.

BUSINESS
Business is the activity or process of making one's living or making money by producing, buying and selling services or products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is any activity or enterprise entered into for profit.

BUSINESS CONCEPT
An idea for a business that includes basic information such as the market research and analysis, product or service definition, the target demographic, invest guide and a USP "Unique Selling Proposition" that gives a company an advantage over competitors.
A business concept may involve a new product, service, design or a novel approach to marketing, branding or delivering an existing product or service

BUSINESS MODEL
A business model is a company's plan for how it will generate revenues and make a profit. It explains what products or services the business plans to manufacture and market, and how it plans to do so, including what expenses it will incur.

BUSINESS NAME
Business Name, or Naming is the process of giving names to things, such as person, company, business, brand, product or services.

BUSINESS PLAN
A business plan is a written document that describes in detail how a business, usually a new one, is going to achieve its goals. A business plan lays out a written plan from a marketing, financial and operational viewpoint. Sometimes, a business plan is prepared for an established business that is moving in a new direction.



C

CAPITAL
Money invested into a company or project by its owners.

CAPITAL EXPENDITURE (CAPEX)
Money spent to create future benefits. Capital expenditure is money spent by a company either to buy fixed assets or to add to the value of existing fixed assets with a useful life that extends beyond the taxable year. With regard to tax, capital expenditure cannot be deducted in the year the money is paid. Compare with operating expenditure (OPEX), which refers to ongoing costs to run a product, service or system.

CASH FLOW
The movement of cash into and out of a business

COLLATERAL
Collateral is something lenders can use to give security against a loan. Often this is a major asset such as a house.

COMMODITY
This is any item which can be freely bought and sold. Examples include gold, food products and coffee beans.

COPYRIGHT
The exclusive legal right, owned by the individual or group who created a work, or by an individual or group assigned by the originator, to use certain material and to allow others the right to use the material.

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a form of self-regulation, where companies integrate social, environmental and ethical policies into their overall business strategy. Companies embracing CSR should take responsibility for their actions and take a proactive approach to having a minimal negative impact on the world.

CREDITOR
A person or firm that has lent your business money or to whom you owe money.

CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR
A critical success factor is an element that must occur in order for a business to achieve its ultimate goal.

C-SUITE
C-SUITE
C-suite, or C-level, is widely-used vernacular describing a cluster of a corporation's most important senior executives. C-suite gets its name from the titles of top senior staffers, which tend to start with the letter C, for "chief," as in chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer (CFO), chief operating officer (COO), and chief information officer (CIO).

Types of C-Suite Roles and Titles
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)Invariably the highest level corporate executive, the CEO traditionally serves as the face of the company and frequently consults other C-suite members for advice on major decisions. CEOs can come from any career background, as long as they have cultivated substantial leadership and decision-making skills along their career paths. Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
In the financial industry, the CFO position represents the top of the corporate ladder for financial analysts and accountants striving for upward mobility. Portfolio management, accounting, investment research, and financial analysis are prime skills that CFOs must have learned over the years. CFOs have global mindsets and work closely with CEOs to source new business opportunities while weighing the financial risks and benefits of each potential venture.

Chief Information Officer (CIO) Chief Information Officer (CIO)
A leader in information technology, the CIO usually gets his or her start as a business analyst, then works towards C-level glory, while developing technical skills in disciplines such as programming, coding, project management, MS Office, and mapping. CIOs are usually skilled at applying these functional skills to risk management, business strategy, and finance activities. In many companies, CIOs are referred to as the chief technology officers.

Chief Operating Officer (COO)
As the human resources (HR) C-level executive, the COO ensures a company's operations run smoothly in areas such as recruitment, training, payroll, legal, and administrative services. The COO is usually second in command to the CEO.

Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) Chief Marketing Officer (CMO)
CMOs typically work their way up to the C-suite from sales and/or marketing roles. These execs are skilled at managing social innovation and product development initiatives across both brick-and-mortar establishments and electronic platforms—the latter of which is highly essential in today's digital era.

Chief Brand Officer (CBO) Chief Brand Officer (CBO)
Is a relatively new executive-level position at a corporation, company, organization, or agency, which typically reports to the CEO or board of directors and is responsible for a brand's image, experience, and promise. The brand officer oversees marketing, advertising, design, and public relations.

Other C-Suite officers include the Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), Chief Human Resources Manager (CHRM), Chief Security Officer (CSO), Chief Green Officer (CGO), Chief Analytics Officer (CAO), Chief Medical Officer (CMO), and Chief Data Officer (CDO).
The number of C-level positions varies, depending on variables such as a company's size, business culture, category and sector. While larger companies may require both a CHRM and a COO, smaller operations may only need a COO to oversee human resources activities.

CUSTOMER CUSTOMER
The person who purchases the goods or services, but not necessarily for personal use. He may pass it down the value chain by selling the product or service further with tweaking, value add done by him.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Change management is an approach to moving organizations and their stakeholders, in an organized manner, from their current state to a desired future state. Effective change management tries to do so in a manner which causes the least anxiety, cost and resistance and therefore is the most likely to succeed.


D

DEBTOR
A person or firm that owes money to you or your business.

DEMAND
A measure of prospective customers who end up buying a product/service. When needs and wants convert into actual purchase, it becomes a demand.

DEMOGRAPHIC
A section of the population who matches the required criteria. It includes age, gender, ethnicity etc.

DEPRECIATION
The reduction in value of assets over time, usually due to wear and tear.

DIVERSIFICATION
When new products, services, customers or markets are added to your company's portfolio. Diversification usually occurs as a risk reduction strategy.

DIVIDEND
Money paid regularly by a company to its shareholders.

DIFFERENTIATION
Characteristics, quality or values that differentiates, sets apart a company, its products or services from the given competition.

DIVERSIFICATION
The act of getting into new products/services or acquiring a new company that increases market of a company.



E

ECONOMIC GROWTH
This is the term used to describe an increase in the amount of goods and services produced by the county, known as gross domestic product (GDP).

ECONOMIES OF SCALE
The cost advantages obtained by a business when buying an item in bulk. The price of an item usually decreases as the amount bought increases.

ENTERPRISE VALUE
This is the market value of a business. It is calculated by market capitalisation times current share price, minus cash, plus debt.

EQUITY
Equity is used by analysts to work out how financially "healthy" a company is. It also represents what would be left if all of a businesses' assets were liquidated and the debt paid off.

ETHICAL INVESTMENT
Investments made in companies that are specifically chosen for their environmental or moral credentials. Defence contractors, or companies known to use contentious labour practices, will generally be avoided by ethical investors.

ETHICAL TRADE
Ethical trade can refer to many different things but is most often used as an umbrella term for any business practices that promote socially and/or environmentally responsible trading.

EXIT STRATEGY
A plan to enable you to leave your business, either after achieving your goal or deciding you would like to move on to do something else while recouping any capital you invested when starting the company.

EXPORT
Selling your goods or services overseas.

EARLY ADOPTERS
A set of customers who purchase a new product/service soon after its launch.

ELASTICITY
The measure of a brand's stretch from one product/service category to the other, OR from one price point to the other within one product/service category.

ELEVATOR PITCH
A very brief and concise description of your brand's purpose that communicates why it exists, what it does, and how. Also check: Pitch Deck

EMOTIONAL BENEFIT
Benefits communicated by a brand that emotionally connects with its customers. This benefit talk to the limbic brain

EPONYMOUS NAME
A brand name that is created around name of a person, real or fictional.

ESOTERIC NAME
A name that has meaning, often understood by a small group of people.

EVOCATIVE NAME
A brand name that evokes feelings and emotions about its brand.

EXCLUSION ZONE
An area or space that is maintained as clear space around a logo.

EXPERIENTIAL NAME
A brand or company name that describes the experience of using the product or engaging with the company. These names are different from descriptive names.

EXTENSION
A new product or service offered under the existing parent brand name that leverages its existing equity.



F

FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
Planning, analysing, monitoring, organising, reviewing and controlling an organisation's monetary resources. Responsibility for financial management often falls to the finance director, and by extension the financial department.

FISCAL YEAR
Also known as a financial year, the fiscal year is a set period used to calculate financial statements. The period used differs between countries and between businesses, although in the Germany the year between 6th April and 5th April is most often used for personal taxation. The 'official' period for corporation tax runs from 1st April to 31st March, however companies can adopt any yearly period for corporation tax.

FIXED COST
Any cost that remains the same in the short-term, despite changes in volume. Fixed costs usually include, for example, rent, interest and salaries.

FUTURES
These are financial contracts that secure a predetermined future date and price for an asset. The assets used in futures contracts include commodities, stocks, and bonds.

FMCG
FMCG is an acronym used for Fast Moving Consumer Goods. It refers to the goods like toiletries, food etc that are frequently purchased by consumers.

FUNCTIONAL BENEFIT
Benefits communicated by a brand that serves the rational needs of buying that product.



G

GOLDEN HELLO
An attractive package (typically a bonus, or stock options) that are offered to a senior employee as an incentive to join the company.

GOLDEN SHARE
A golden share in a company is able to outvote all other shares in a specified circumstance.

GREY KNIGHT
During a business takeover, this is a bidder who has no clearly stated intentions.

GROSS
The total amount of money you have earned in a period of time before deductions such as taxes.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP)
GDP is the sum of all goods and services produced in the country's economy. If it is up on the previous three months, the economy is growing. If GDP is down, the economy is contracting.

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT (GNP)
GNP is another way to measure the economy, but also the welfare of British citizens. This is GDP plus the profits, interest and dividends received from British residents abroad and minus those profits, interest and dividends paid from the UK to overseas residents.

GENERIC BRAND
A product that doesn't carry a brand name OR a brand that has grown incredibly in its recall and refers to the entire category. The latter may often happen with the first mover's advantage and/or high market penetration compared to competition.


H

HERITAGE BRAND
A heritage brand is one that has been favourite of many for many decades and continues to be relevant to today's discerning customers.

HOMOGENEOUS BRAND
When customers don't see any difference in emotional and functional benefit derived from a brand, vis a vis competition.

HOUSE OF BRANDS
House Of Brands is a Branding Architecture Strategy in which parent company (Master brand) stays virtually invisible to the customers and all its sub brands have its own unique identity and equity. This allows for wider Brand Portfolio but needs more investment in building individual sub brands.

HYBRID BRAND ARCHITECTURE
A Hybrid Brand Architecture Model exists when there is use of both Branding Strategies- Branded House and House Of brands.



I

IMPORT
Buying goods or services from overseas and bringing them into the country.

INCOME STATEMENT
Determines the net income/profit of a business. An annual summary of both income and expenses.

INDUSTRIAL OUTPUT
This is an indicator of future economic growth as it is the manufacturing output of the nation.

INFLATION
The term used when prices rise.

INSIDER TRADING
The trading of shares based on knowledge that no one else has. It was made illegal in the UK in 1980.

INSOLVENCY
When a company becomes unable to pay off its creditors, or its liabilities exceed its assets.

INSTITUTIONAL INVESTOR
A professional money manager who works for private investors and invests via pension and life insurance funds.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
Any works or inventions that are original creative designs. The individual or company responsible for the designs will be entitled to apply for a copyright or trademark on the designs.

INTERIM PROFIT STATEMENT
This updates shareholders on a company's unaudited profits for the first half of the financial year.

INVESTMENT TRUST
A company on the stock exchange that only invests in other companies.

INVOICE FACTORING
Invoice factoring involves a business selling its invoices on to a third party, who will then add their own fee to the charges and seek the money from the debtor.



J

JOINT VENTURE
A company formed by two or more companies coming together to add strengths and capabilities.



K

KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATOR
A key performance indicator (KPI) is a measure of performance to assess the success of a company or a certain activity the company is taking part in.



L

LEVERAGED BUYOUT
When a company is acquired using borrowed funds. The debt is usually repaid by money made by the acquired company.

LIBOR RATE
Libor stands for the London interbank offered rate and provides the average interest rate at which major global banks borrow from one another. It is based on five currencies:
US Dollar
Euro
British Pound
Japanese Yen
Swiss Franc
Libor is also the basis for consumer loans in countries worldwide. It impacts both consumers and financial institutions.

LIQUID ASSET
Any asset which can be easily converted into cash.

LIQUIDITY
The ease with which a company's assets can be converted into cash.

LIFESTYLE
A person's manner of living day-to-day life as depicted by activities, possessions, attitudes and behaviour. When we use the industry terminology "lifestyle brand", it means the brand would complement to the person's lifestyle.

LOYALTY
When a customer develops trust in a product / service / brand, he becomes committed to purchasing the same brand again. Also check: Brand Loyalty



M

MARKET LEADER
A brand that has achieved a dominant position in the market with regards to sales volume, penetration, quality or value offered with its products and services. This is a dynamic concept and market leader is not a function of brand loyalty. It may simply be because of higher penetration or better sales promotion.

MARKET RESEARCH
Systematic collection of data from a given market, followed by its analysis and reporting that helps in planning and strategising.

MARKET-PENETRATION PRICING
A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably lower compared to given competition to gain higher sales volume and "penetrate" the market.

MARKET-SKIMMING PRICING
A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably higher compared to given competition to maximize profits immediately following launch. The prices are lowered with time.

MACROECONOMICS
This is a part of economics that seeks to simplify and show the progress of whole economies rather than focus on individuals or groups (which is microeconomics).

MANAGED FUND
There are two ways in which a fund can be controlled:
Actively. A fund manager buys and sells to maximise gains and minimise losses.
Passively. A computer programme tracks the performance of a market.

MARGIN
A profit margin is how much money a company made. For example, a gross profit of £1m on sales of £10m is a 10% profit margin. Companies can compare profit margins with others to see how they are doing.

MARKET SEGMENTATION
A market segment is a division of a market with similar characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion) that cause them to demand similar products and/or services. For example, in an area with a large Jewish community, kosher foods are likely to be in greater demand.

MARKET SHARE
The percentage or portion of the overall market controlled by one company.

MARKETING MIX
The combination of marketing elements used by a company to encourage consumers to purchase its product or service. Also known as the seven Ps: product, price, promotion, place, people, process, physical evidence.

MERGER

When two or more companies are combined into one.

MICROECONOMICS
This is a part of economics that concentrates on the actions of individuals and groups, rather than of whole economies (which is macroeconomics)


N

NATIONAL INSURANCE
National insurance is a form of tax which everyone currently employed must pay in order to qualify for benefits, including the state pension.

NEGATIVE EQUITY
When the value of an asset you have already bought becomes worth less than what you initially paid.

NET
The amount of profit remaining after deductions such as tax have been made.

NET ASSET VALUE
A way of measuring investment trusts. Take the total number of its assets minus its liabilities.

NICHE MARKETA
small segment of the market as identified by a brand that will benefit from their product/service.

NIESR
National Institute of Economic and Social Research.

NOMINAL INTEREST RATE
An interest rate that isn't adjusted for inflation.

NOMINAL VALUES
These values do not take inflation into account.

NON-EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
This is a director who helps the company and offers an independent view on strategies and performance but is not actively involved in the day-to-day running.

NOMENCLATURE SYSTEM
Naming methodology adopted by a company to name its various brands/products/services that illustrate the relationship between various sub-brands.



O

OFFERING
It is the sum total of a sales offer made by a company- including product, features, its packaging, warranties, services and terms of use.

OFFSHORE ACCOUNT
Funds which are managed outside of the UK.

OLIGOPOLY
A market where only a few firms control the percentage of total sales.

OLIGOPOLY
A market in which there are a very few sellers offering its products/services to a significantly large customer base (market size).

OPERATING EXPENDITURE (OPEX)
On-going costs for running a business, service or system that includes day-to-day expenditure such as sales and administration. Compare with capital expenditure, which is money spent on fixed assets or extensions to already-owned fixed assets. A photocopier, for example, would involve capital expenditure whereas toner and paper for the photocopier would be operating expenditure.

OPERATING PROFIT/LOSS
The profit or loss a company makes. These figures reflect how the business is performing.

ORDINARY SHARE
Also known as common shares, this is one unit of a businesses share capital.

OVERHEADS
Costs that do not vary regardless of the level of production and are not usually directly involved with the cost of production, such as rent.



P

PATENT
An official legal document confirming that an individual or company has the sole right to make, use or sell a particular invention.

PAYE
Pay as you earn. A method of collecting income tax on behalf of the Government by taking it directly from your employees' weekly/monthly pay.

PHILANTHROPY
Making donations to charities in order to improve human wellbeing.

PRESENT VALUE
Comparison of the money available to the company in the future with the value of money it currently holds, e.g. due to interest.

PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY
A type of legal company structure that, among other features, limits the personal liability of the company owners so that they can't be made bankrupt by company debts.

PRIVATISATION
The process of moving state-owned assets into the private sector.

PRODUCER PRICE INDEX
A measure of inflation in goods bought and manufactured by British-based industry.

PRODUCT ELASTICITY OF DEMAND (PED)
The degree to which demand for products or services changes with the price. Essential goods, such as food, do not experience an increase in demand when the price changes, and are deemed "inelastic", but non-essential goods do.

PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT
A financial statement that shows any incomes or outgoings of a company over a certain period of time so as to show the net profit or loss for that time.

PERCEPTION GAP
The degree of difference between customers' perception of a brand and the brand owners' intent of how their brand should be perceived.

PERCEPTUAL MAPPING
An analysis of customer perception that identifies differences in how they perceive a brand versus its competition.

POINT-OF-PURCHASE
A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.

POINT-OF-SALE
Another term of point-of-purchase - A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.



Q

QUANTITATIVE EASING
This is a policy used by authorities in extreme circumstances to ease pressure placed on banks. The authorities buy bonds from the banks and from the commercial sector to make sure banks have enough cash to continue operating.

QUOTA
This is a limit set by a government on how much of a product can be imported and exported.



R

RATE OF RETURN
This is represented as a percentage and is the annual income an investment makes back.

REAL INTEREST RATE
The rate of interest minus the current rate of inflation.

REAL VALUES
Real values show how relative particular prices are to prices in general. They are adjusted according to inflation.

RECESSION
A period of severe economic decline. Defined by a contraction of GDP for six months or longer.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT
The earning power of an asset or activity measured as a ratio of the net income of the activity to the operational cost. Return on investment (ROI) lets a company know whether an activity is profitable enough to continue.

REVENUE
Amounts of money received by (or owed to) a company for goods or services provided.

REASON TO BELIEVE (RTB)
A reason to believe is the proof that the brand delivers the benefits that it promises, and that customers can trust it seeing its credibility.



S

SALES ANALYSIS
Measuring sales achievement against the goals defined for the period.

SECONDARY CUSTOMER
A customer that is outside (above or below) the psychographic benefit group defined for a brand. At Yellow Fishes, we believe that the insight we receive from secondary customer is far richer compared to the insight received from primary customer.

SHARE INDEX
Tracks the value of shares on the exchange to demonstrate their performance.

SHARE OPTIONS
A right to buy shares in a company in the future, at a favourable price, in addition to a regular salary if the person meets specific performance targets or predetermined criteria.

SHAREHOLDER
An owner of shares in a company.

SMES
Small and medium-sized enterprises. A small business has fewer than 50 staff and a medium-sized business has fewer than 250 staff. Micro-businesses, with fewer than 10 staff, would also come under the term 'SME'.

SOCIAL ENTERPRISE
Social mission driven businesses, with social and/or environmental aims, that use market-based strategies to achieve their goals. Social enterprises can be both non-profit and for-profit.

STAKEHOLDERS
Any individual or party that has an interest in or may be affected by a business and/or its activities. This can include anyone, from shareholders to residents of the local community.

SUPPLY CHAIN
The different elements making up the process involved in producing and distributing an item or items.

SUSTAINABILITY
The use of natural resources with a minimal impact on the environment; e.g. no depletion of resources. For example, a company that manufactured paper would be sustainable if it only made 100 percent recycled paper or planted a new tree for each one it cut down.

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM)
The continual process of procuring the raw materials from right vendors, processing them by enhancing its value, converting them into usable end products and dispatching them to right destinations.

SWOT SWOT
Acronym of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Whilst strengths and weaknesses are something that can be enhanced/leveraged/improved by the company, the Opportunities and Threats are external factors, and cannot be controlled by the company.



T

TARGET GROUP
A specific market (formed by a pre-defined segmentation of customers) that is targeted by a marketer for selling its goods and services. We urge you to refer to this as Benefit Group, if you think your products/services make a difference. Also check: Benefit Group

TAKEOVER
The buying out of one company by another.

TRADE BALANCE
Only taking visible trade into account (the import and export of physical goods) the trade balance shows a county's trade position.

TOP-OF-MIND AWARENESS
The brand that comes to a customer's mind first when given a category. When we say 'shoes', what brand comes to your mind?

TOUCHPOINT
A point where a brand interacts with a customer/employee/non-customer (also referred to as moment of truth or point of contact). This interaction, experience can be before, during or after a transaction.

TRADEMARK (TM)
A name, color, symbol, sound, phrase, design, or other intellectual property that is protected by a brand for its exclusive use and aids in recognition.

TRIANGLE SENSORY TEST
This is a discrimination test where respondents are presented with three products, of which two are same. Using one's senses of touch, taste, sight, smell and sound- respondents have to recognise the unique product

TRIPLE BOTTOM LINE
People, planet, profit. The bottom line was originally considered as just profit. In recent years, with the growth in popularity of corporate social responsibility, businesses are increasingly measuring project success not only in monetary terms, but also by examining their social and environmental performance.

TURNOVER
The total sales of a business or company during a specified period.



U

UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION (USP) UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION (USP)
A tangible feature, quality, quantity gains that a brand offers to its customers uniquely. All such things that are intended to benefit the customers and not offered by competition qualify to be called as USP.

UNIT TRUST
A unit trust invests money in the stock market on behalf of a group of private investors that have put all their money together to invest and be managed by a fund manager.

UNQUOTED SHARES
Some companies choose to not be listed on the stock market, or they may not meet the listing requirements. Therefore the shares are 'unquoted'.

UNSOUGHT GOODS
The products that customers don't normally think about and are not keen to buy. These products may require extensive marketing and need-generation campaigns.

UP-MARKET
A brand developed for customers that have large disposable income to purchase products/services that are relatively expensive.



V

VALUE PROPOSITION
This is intangible value received by purchasing a brand. Value Proposition may not be unique to a brand. Two brands can promise to deliver the same value. The amount of value delivered by their offerings, however, may be different.

VENTURE CAPITAL
Capital invested into projects with higher risks, usually start-up businesses.

VERTICAL MERGER
A merger between companies that are in the same industry but are not at the same production stage. For example, if a car manufacturer buys a tyre company. They are part of the car manufacturing industry, but now the car maker can reduce the cost of tyres.

VOLUME
The number of shares traded in a day on the London Stock Exchange.

WITHOUT-PROFITS POLICY
An insurance policy that does not share in the profits of the business that issued it.



W

WANTS
When basic human needs are more defined and direct. Example: Quenching thirst is a Need, decision to drink juice is a Want, and buying XYZ brand of juice converts it into a Demand.

WORKING CAPITAL
This is the capital a business uses in its day-to-day trading. It's the difference between current assets and current liabilities. It provides an indication of liquidity and the businesses ability to meet its current obligations.

WORK-LIFE BALANCE
The balance in demands of both life at work and personal life.



X

XENODOCHIAL
An adjective that describes us, meaning - friendly to strangers.



Y

YIELD
The income from an investment. Calculated by taking the annual dividend or interest payment, multiplying by 100 and dividing by the current market price.


Z

ZOMBIE FUNDS
More formally these are called closed funds. It's a name given to a closed with-profits fund that no longer accepts new business until the existing policies mature.

Brand


A

ADVERTISING ADVERTISING
A mode of communication where brands express themselves to drive purchase behavior. Brands should ideally advertise only after they have determined their key messages, through a branding exercise.

ACRONYM
A Naming technique used to shorten organization/brand names. One such example is NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).

ACQUISITION
It is the act of acquiring another company or brand for expanding the reach to larger audience and/or enhancing the current offerings.

AWARENESS
The Brand Awareness measurement (in percentage or in absolute) showing the number of people aware of the brand. Awareness studies can be done at regional or global scale.

AWESOME AWESOME
An adjective frequently used by our clients to describe us!



B

BACKRONYM BACKCRONYM
This is opposite of Acronym. A backronym is expanded version of an existing brand name.

BENEFIT GROUP
At beesiness, we build passionate brands that enhance lives of millions of customers, we term these customer sets as 'Benefit Group' instead of 'target group.

BRAND BRAND
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business, branding, marketing, and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands.
A brand is right at the intersection of its promise and experience. Well, that's how we like to define it.

BRAND ARCHITECTURE BRAND ARCHITECTURE
Brand architecture is the structure of an organisation's portfolio that explains the relationship between the master brand and its various sub-brands.

BRAND AUDIT
Brand audit is a comprehensive, periodic audit of a brand's performance with regards to its proposition, values and competition. This also includes customer experience with the brand, communication effectiveness and gap analysis. Brand audit often helps in formulating stronger and more relevant brand strategy.

BRAND AWARENESS
Brand awareness is the degree of consumer awareness of a brand and its related products. Creating brand awareness is one of the key steps in promoting and marketing a product. Brand awareness is particularly important when launching new products and services. It allows a company to differentiate itself from competitor-offered products and services.

BRAND CREATION
New brand creation typically involves creation of a cohesive Branding Strategy, Naming, Identity and communication design.

BRAND ESSENCE BRAND ESSENCE
The core of a brand that defines its purpose, offering and reason for existence. Also known as Brand proposition or Brand Core.

BRAND EXTENSION BRAND EXTENSION
Horizontal expansion of a brand that can offer i) complementary products or services, or ii) unrelated products or services.
Brand extension, also known as brand stretching, leverages the reputation and popularity of the well-known brand to increase demand for new products. Brand extension is the use of a well-established brand name for a new product or new product category.

BRAND GUIDELINES BRAND GUIDELINES
A set of rules that define a brand's behaviour and controls its visual and verbal manifestation.

BRAND IDENTITY BRAND IDENTITY
Brand identity is how a business presents itself to, and wants to be perceived by, its consumers. Brand identity is distinct from brand image. The former corresponds to the intent behind the branding: the way a company chooses its name; designs its logo; uses colors, shapes and other visual elements in its products and promotions; crafts the language in its advertisements and trains employees to interact with customers — all with the goal of cultivating a certain image in consumers' minds. Brand image is the actual result of these efforts, successful or unsuccessful.
In other hand brand identity is key identifiers of a brand that includes word, sign, symbol, colors, and design style that makes a brand recognisable. Also check: Logo

BRAND IMAGE BRAND IMAGE
This is customers' interpretation of how the brand experience would be. To form a mental brand image, one need not experience the brand.

BRAND LOYALTY BRAND LOYALTY
Brand loyalty is a consumer behavior pattern where consumers become committed to a particular brand and make repeat purchases over time. Companies use creative marketing strategies, such as loyalty or rewards programs, trials, brand ambassadors, and incentives like free samples to build brand loyalty.
This is measured by only one parameter- repeat purchase. But, a customer becomes loyal to a brand when he disregards the alternatives available to him, and is willing to pay a premium of time, or money to purchase that brand.

BRAND NAME BRAND NAME
Brand Name is the process of giving names to things, such as person, company, business, brand, project, product or services. Also check: Naming

BRAND PERSONALITY
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that are attributed to a brand name. A brand personality is something to which the consumer can relate; an effective brand increases its brand equity by having a consistent set of traits that a specific consumer segment enjoys. This personality is a qualitative value-add that a brand gains in addition to its functional benefits.
Human characteristics used to define the brand. E.g. caring, daring, honest, reliable etc.

BRAND POSITIONING
A rather short - or long term communication platform that has to be in conformity with Brand's Proposition. Also check: Brand Proposition

BRAND PROPOSITION
Brand Proposition is the heart of any brand. It is the 'promise' delivered through its product or service. Otherwise known as Brand Core, or Brand Essence.

BRAND RECALL
It is the ability for customers' or prospective customers' to remember a brand name and its associations from their memory when a product/service category is prompted. When we say mobile phone , what brand comes to your mind?

BRAND RECOGNITION
Brand recognition is the extent to which the general public (or an organization's target market) is able to identify a brand by its attributes. Brand recognition, also known as "aided brand recall," is most successful when people can state a brand without being explicitly exposed to the company's name, but rather through visual or auditory signifiers like logos, slogans, packaging, colors or jingles as seen in advertising. It differs from brand awareness, which is merely the knowledge that a brand exists.
This is a customers' ability to recognize a brand name when various associations are used as aids to help in recall.

BRAND REJUVENATION
The process of revitalising an existing brand by changing brand strategy that brings about a change in its visual and verbal communication.

BRAND VALUES
Brand values support the Brand Proposition and make it come alive. These values transcend down to every employee representing the brand.

BRANDED HOUSE
Branded House is a Branding Architecture Strategy in which parent company (Master Brand) stays at the forefront and endorses all its products whilst leveraging its existing brand equity.

BRANDING
The process by which a brand's promise is manifested in brand's experience across touch points. This maintains consistency for recall and recognition, enhances brand image and increases brand equity in the long term.

BUSINESS
Business is the activity or process of making one's living or making money by producing, buying and selling services or products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is any activity or enterprise entered into for profit.

BUSINESS CONCEPT
An idea for a business that includes basic information such as the market research and analysis, product or service definition, the target demographic, invest guide and a USP "Unique Selling Proposition" that gives a company an advantage over competitors.
A business concept may involve a new product, service, design or a novel approach to marketing, branding or delivering an existing product or service

BUSINESS MODEL/CONCEPT
A business model or concept is a company's plan for how it will generate revenues and make a profit. It explains what products or services the business plans to manufacture and market, and how it plans to do so, including what expenses it will incur.

BUSINESS NAME
Business Name, or Naming is the process of giving names to things, such as person, company, business, brand, product or services.

BUSINESS PLAN
A business plan is a written document that describes in detail how a business, usually a new one, is going to achieve its goals. A business plan lays out a written plan from a marketing, financial and operational viewpoint. Sometimes, a business plan is prepared for an established business that is moving in a new direction.



C

CANNIBALISATION
A situation where a new product/service from a company steals market share of an existing product/service by the same company.

CAPTION
A catchy headline of a piece of communication.

COMPETITION
Set of companies/brands that are serving the same customer set with a similar or better product/service in the same region.

CONSUMER
The person who uses/consumes the goods or services himself, without passing it down the value chains.

CORPORATE BRANDING CORPORATE BRANDING
Corporate Branding is the process of using a company's name as the brand name to determine its Brand Strategy and manifest the same in design.

C-SUITE C-SUITE
C-suite, or C-level, is widely-used vernacular describing a cluster of a corporation's most important senior executives. C-suite gets its name from the titles of top senior staffers, which tend to start with the letter C, for "chief," as in chief executive officer (CEO), chief financial officer (CFO), chief operating officer (COO), and chief information officer (CIO).

Types of C-Suite Roles and Titles
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Chief Executive Officer (CEO)Invariably the highest level corporate executive, the CEO traditionally serves as the face of the company and frequently consults other C-suite members for advice on major decisions. CEOs can come from any career background, as long as they have cultivated substantial leadership and decision-making skills along their career paths. Chief Executive Officer (CEO)

Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Chief Financial Officer (CFO)
In the financial industry, the CFO position represents the top of the corporate ladder for financial analysts and accountants striving for upward mobility. Portfolio management, accounting, investment research, and financial analysis are prime skills that CFOs must have learned over the years. CFOs have global mindsets and work closely with CEOs to source new business opportunities while weighing the financial risks and benefits of each potential venture.

Chief Information Officer (CIO) Chief Information Officer (CIO)
A leader in information technology, the CIO usually gets his or her start as a business analyst, then works towards C-level glory, while developing technical skills in disciplines such as programming, coding, project management, MS Office, and mapping. CIOs are usually skilled at applying these functional skills to risk management, business strategy, and finance activities. In many companies, CIOs are referred to as the chief technology officers.

Chief Operating Officer (COO)
As the human resources (HR) C-level executive, the COO ensures a company's operations run smoothly in areas such as recruitment, training, payroll, legal, and administrative services. The COO is usually second in command to the CEO.

Chief Marketing Officer (CMO) Chief Marketing Officer (CMO)
CMOs typically work their way up to the C-suite from sales and/or marketing roles. These execs are skilled at managing social innovation and product development initiatives across both brick-and-mortar establishments and electronic platforms—the latter of which is highly essential in today's digital era.

Chief Brand Officer (CBO) Chief Brand Officer (CBO)
Is a relatively new executive-level position at a corporation, company, organization, or agency, which typically reports to the CEO or board of directors and is responsible for a brand's image, experience, and promise. The brand officer oversees marketing, advertising, design, and public relations.

Other C-Suite officers include the Chief Compliance Officer (CCO), Chief Human Resources Manager (CHRM), Chief Security Officer (CSO), Chief Green Officer (CGO), Chief Analytics Officer (CAO), Chief Medical Officer (CMO), and Chief Data Officer (CDO).
The number of C-level positions varies, depending on variables such as a company's size, business culture, category and sector. While larger companies may require both a CHRM and a COO, smaller operations may only need a COO to oversee human resources activities.

CUSTOMER CUSTOMER
The person who purchases the goods or services, but not necessarily for personal use. He may pass it down the value chain by selling the product or service further with tweaking, value add done by him.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT
Change management is an approach to moving organizations and their stakeholders, in an organized manner, from their current state to a desired future state. Effective change management tries to do so in a manner which causes the least anxiety, cost and resistance and therefore is the most likely to succeed.


D

DEMAND
A measure of prospective customers who end up buying a product/service. When needs and wants convert into actual purchase, it becomes a demand.

DEMOGRAPHIC
A section of the population who matches the required criteria. It includes age, gender, ethnicity etc.

DIFFERENTIATION
Characteristics, quality or values that differentiates, sets apart a company, its products or services from the given competition.

DIVERSIFICATION
The act of getting into new products/services or acquiring a new company that increases market of a company.



E

EARLY ADOPTERS
A set of customers who purchase a new product/service soon after its launch.

ELASTICITY
The measure of a brand's stretch from one product/service category to the other, OR from one price point to the other within one product/service category.

ELEVATOR PITCH
A very brief and concise description of your brand's purpose that communicates why it exists, what it does, and how. Also check: Pitch Deck

EMOTIONAL BENEFIT
Benefits communicated by a brand that emotionally connects with its customers. This benefit talk to the limbic brain

EPONYMOUS NAME
A brand name that is created around name of a person, real or fictional.

ESOTERIC NAME
A name that has meaning, often understood by a small group of people.

EVOCATIVE NAME
A brand name that evokes feelings and emotions about its brand.

EXCLUSION ZONE
An area or space that is maintained as clear space around a logo.

EXPERIENTIAL NAME
A brand or company name that describes the experience of using the product or engaging with the company. These names are different from descriptive names.

EXTENSION
A new product or service offered under the existing parent brand name that leverages its existing equity.



F

FEATURE
An offering, part of a product or service that is intended to give benefit(s).

FMCG
FMCG is an acronym used for Fast Moving Consumer Goods. It refers to the goods like toiletries, food etc that are frequently purchased by consumers.

FUNCTIONAL BENEFIT
Benefits communicated by a brand that serves the rational needs of buying that product.



G

GENERIC BRAND
A product that doesn't carry a brand name OR a brand that has grown incredibly in its recall and refers to the entire category. The latter may often happen with the first mover's advantage and/or high market penetration compared to competition.

GLOBAL BRAND
A brand that has international presence, in all continents.

GRAPHIC DESIGN
Graphic design is a specialized stream that involves information management, problem-solving, and communication by using elements such as type, color, illustrations and images.

GUERRILLA MARKETING
A low cost marketing strategy in which a brand advertises using unconventional methods are used to gain attention.



H

HERITAGE BRAND
A heritage brand is one that has been favourite of many for many decades and continues to be relevant to today's discerning customers.

HOMOGENEOUS BRAND
When customers don't see any difference in emotional and functional benefit derived from a brand, vis a vis competition.

HOUSE OF BRANDS
House Of Brands is a Branding Architecture Strategy in which parent company (Master brand) stays virtually invisible to the customers and all its sub brands have its own unique identity and equity. This allows for wider Brand Portfolio but needs more investment in building individual sub brands.

HYBRID BRAND ARCHITECTURE
A Hybrid Brand Architecture Model exists when there is use of both Branding Strategies- Branded House and House Of brands.



I

INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
Systematic and intentional placement of information that creates order and clarity whilst communicating in the most effective manner.

INFOTAINMENT
Communication mediums or vehicles that communicate information and entertainment at the same time.

INGREDIENT BRAND
A brand that offers its products/services/parts to contribute to something bigger which is consumer facing. More relevant in B2B.

INTERNAL BRANDING
Efforts and processes that align internal employees with the vision and value proposition of the company and get inspired to move towards it confidently.



J

JOINT VENTURE
A company formed by two or more companies coming together to add strengths and capabilities.



K

KAIZEN
Simply meaning "continuously improve" is a Japanese business philosophy that believes in perpetual change with regards to working practices, efficiency and performance that lead to organisational growth.



L

LIFESTYLE
A person's manner of living day-to-day life as depicted by activities, possessions, attitudes and behaviour. When we use the industry terminology "lifestyle brand", it means the brand would complement to the person's lifestyle.

LINE EXTENSION
When a brand extends its current offerings under the same brand name to provide variants, types, flavours etc.

LOYALTY
When a customer develops trust in a product / service / brand, he becomes committed to purchasing the same brand again. Also check: Brand Loyalty

LOGO
A trademark-able symbol, graphic, visual representation of an organisation that reflects beliefs and values of the organisation whilst enabling public recognition. A logo is part of Brand Identity but not the only thing that comprises it. Also check: Brand Identity



M

MARKET LEADER
A brand that has achieved a dominant position in the market with regards to sales volume, penetration, quality or value offered with its products and services. This is a dynamic concept and market leader is not a function of brand loyalty. It may simply be because of higher penetration or better sales promotion.

MARKET RESEARCH
Systematic collection of data from a given market, followed by its analysis and reporting that helps in planning and strategising.

MARKET-PENETRATION PRICING
A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably lower compared to given competition to gain higher sales volume and "penetrate" the market.

MARKET-SKIMMING PRICING
A Pricing Strategy where the products and services are priced considerably higher compared to given competition to maximize profits immediately following launch. The prices are lowered with time.

MASCOT
A person or animal (real or fictional) or even a thing that is used as a symbol to represent a brand.

MASTER BRAND
This is the parent brand in Brand Architecture in relationship with sub brands. The relationship of Master Brand with each of its sub brands are determined in ratios. Also called as Mother or Main Brand.



N

NAMING
The process of selecting an existing word, or creating new one that will identify a brand, product or service. There are numerous Naming Techniques available.

NICHE MARKET
A small segment of the market as identified by a brand that will benefit from their product/service.

NOMENCLATURE SYSTEM
Naming methodology adopted by a company to name its various brands/products/services that illustrate the relationship between various sub-brands.



O

OBJECTIVE
Specific, measurable target or a goal that a brand wants to achieve in a given period.

OFFERING
It is the sum total of a sales offer made by a company- including product, features, its packaging, warranties, services and terms of use.

OLIGOPOLY
A market in which there are a very few sellers offering its products/services to a significantly large customer base (market size).



P

PACKAGING DESIGN
The design of pack format, its graphics, elements and visual hierarchy on a product brand. Also known as Package Design.

PERCEPTION GAP
The degree of difference between customers' perception of a brand and the brand owners' intent of how their brand should be perceived.

PERCEPTUAL MAPPING
An analysis of customer perception that identifies differences in how they perceive a brand versus its competition.

PREMIUM BRAND
A well-regarded brand that holds more brand value than other well-known brands. This could also be seen as a brand selling expensive products/services from the customers' side.

PRIVATE BRAND
A private brand is a good that is manufactured for and sold under the name of a specific retailer, and competes with brand-name products. Also referred to as "private label" or "store brand," prices for private brands tend to be less than those of nationally recognized name brand goods. Private brand items can provide retailers, such as supermarkets, with a better margin than the brand-name goods they also carry.

POINT-OF-PURCHASE
A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.

POINT-OF-SALE
Another term of point-of-purchase - A display, kiosk, stand that stocks a product and provides additional information like features, benefits, etc.

PRIVATE LABEL BRAND
Brands that retailers and wholesalers create and sell, instead of selling brands from original manufacturers and suppliers in the supply chain.

PSYCHOACOUSTICS
Affect and influence, of sound on human emotions, feelings and behaviour.



Q

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
A Qualitative Research is a method of inquiry in which the emphasis is on quality of information and does not require statistical/mathematical accuracy. This type of research helps in understanding human emotions, feelings and decision making.

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
A Quantitative Research is a method of inquiry in which the emphasis is on the quantity of information and requires statistical/mathematical accuracy. This involves use of polls and survey.



R

RE-BRANDING
A change in brand's strategic course or vision or change in its Value Proposition that brings about a change in its Brand Identity to reflect the change.

REASON TO BELIEVE (RTB)
A reason to believe is the proof that the brand delivers the benefits that it promises, and that customers can trust it seeing its credibility.

RETENTION BRANDING
A branding exercise focussed on retaining existing customers.

RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI)
Ratio of money gained or lost in proportion to that originally invested.



S

SALES ANALYSIS
Measuring sales achievement against the goals defined for the period.

SECONDARY CUSTOMER
A customer that is outside (above or below) the psychographic benefit group defined for a brand. At Yellow Fishes, we believe that the insight we receive from secondary customer is far richer compared to the insight received from primary customer.

SECONDARY PACKAGING
An outer carton, box or sleeve of a packaged product.

SEMANTICS
Semantics is a specialised study where the relation between signs, symbols, words and phrases with its meaning is understood.

SLOGAN
A phrase, construction of sentence using words that is used for commercial, social or political campaign. This is different from a tagline. Slogans come from temporary positioning. Tag lines are derived from proposition.

SONIC BRANDING
Use of music, sound or tune, that is created for a brand's recognition and is part of brand identity.

SUB-BRAND
Individual brand that is linked to the master brand with similar values. Also check: Brand Architecture

SUBSTITUTE
When alternate product/service satisfies the customer in equal or greater terms as compared to the other product, it qualifies as a substitute.

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT (SCM)
The continual process of procuring the raw materials from right vendors, processing them by enhancing its value, converting them into usable end products and dispatching them to right destinations.

SWOT SWOT
Acronym of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Whilst strengths and weaknesses are something that can be enhanced/leveraged/improved by the company, the Opportunities and Threats are external factors, and cannot be controlled by the company.



T

TAGLINE
A phrase, descriptor, or a sentence, that is used with a Brand Name. A Tagline (if not a descriptor) communicates a brand's promise and stems from Brand's Proposition. Also check: Slogan

TARGET GROUP
A specific market (formed by a pre-defined segmentation of customers) that is targeted by a marketer for selling its goods and services. We urge you to refer to this as Benefit Group, if you think your products/services make a difference. Also check: Benefit Group

TOP-OF-MIND AWARENESS
The brand that comes to a customer's mind first when given a category. When we say 'shoes', what brand comes to your mind?

TOUCHPOINT
A point where a brand interacts with a customer/employee/non-customer (also referred to as moment of truth or point of contact). This interaction, experience can be before, during or after a transaction.

TRADEMARK (TM)
A name, color, symbol, sound, phrase, design, or other intellectual property that is protected by a brand for its exclusive use and aids in recognition.

TRIANGLE SENSORY TEST
This is a discrimination test where respondents are presented with three products, of which two are same. Using one's senses of touch, taste, sight, smell and sound- respondents have to recognise the unique product

TYPOGRAPHY
Typography is the technique of forming and placing fonts and defining type styles for brand communication.



U

UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION (USP) UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION (USP)
A tangible feature, quality, quantity gains that a brand offers to its customers uniquely. All such things that are intended to benefit the customers and not offered by competition qualify to be called as USP.

UNSOUGHT GOODS
The products that customers don't normally think about and are not keen to buy. These products may require extensive marketing and need-generation campaigns.

UP-MARKET
A brand developed for customers that have large disposable income to purchase products/services that are relatively expensive.



V

VALUE PROPOSITION
This is intangible value received by purchasing a brand. Value Proposition may not be unique to a brand. Two brands can promise to deliver the same value. The amount of value delivered by their offerings, however, may be different.

VERBAL IDENTITY
A brand name and other verbal elements like the tagline, sound, jingle, word mark etc that reflect a brand's promise/proposition.

VIRAL MARKETING
Use of the internet to reach out to more prospective customers and communicate about brand's promise and experience.

VISION
A company's Vision is its long-term goal that defines the direction of the company in the future. At Beesiness| Business Consultant, we think that vision statements have become boring, uninspiring and a thing of the past, as they don't compel the employees. Therefore, by means of our Brand Iceberg Model, we articulate what brands truly stand for and why it exists. Also check: Brand Iceberg Model.

VISUAL IDENTITY
All the visual elements of a brand, such as a logo, symbol, icon, colors, mascot etc. that serve as recognisable elements and reflect brand's promise/proposition.



W

WANTS
When basic human needs are more defined and direct. Example: Quenching thirst is a Need, decision to drink juice is a Want, and buying XYZ brand of juice converts it into a Demand.

WORDMARK
A Wordmark, also referred to as logotype is a distinct typographic treatment given to a brand name, or any organisation's name.



X

XENODOCHIAL
An adjective that describes us, meaning - friendly to strangers.



Y

YOUTH BRAND
A brand that talks to and serves young generation as its primary Benefit Group.



Z

ZERO-LEVEL CHANNEL
A manufacturer selling products directly to its customers without involvement of retailers/wholesalers. This is like direct selling.
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